Ohio Robbery Law

The following is from https://statelaws.findlaw.com/ohio-law/ohio-robbery-laws.html and shared here in order to get a sense of the injustice that Jason is facing.


Ohio Revised Code Title XXIX. Crimes Procedure Section 2911.01 & Section 2911.02


Aggravated Robbery (Section 2911.01):

It’s a first degree felony to do any of the following while attempting to commit or committing a theft offense, or fleeing immediately after the attempt or offense:

  • Have a deadly weapon and either show the weapon or use it;
  • Have a dangerous ordnance; or
  • Inflict, or attempt to inflict, serious physical harm on another.

Robbery (Section 2911.02):

  • It’s a second degree felony to have a deadly weapon or inflict, attempt to inflict, or threaten to inflict physical harm on another while committing or attempting to commit a theft offense, or fleeing after the offense.
  • It’s a third degree felony to use or threaten the immediate use of force against another while committing or attempting to commit a theft offense, or fleeing after the offense.


Conviction under Ohio’s robbery laws can result in imprisonment and fines:

  • First degree felony: prison term of 3 to 11 years and fines not exceeding $20,000.
  • Second degree felony: prison term of 2 to 8 years and fines not exceeding $15,000.
  • Third degree felony: prison term of 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, or 36 months and fines not exceeding $10,000.

Press Release: Imprisoned Ohio Lebron Fan Puts Up Billboard


DATE: April 6, 2020


Ohio prisoner Jason Goudlock, 45, who made international headlines in 2014 when he made the comment to the Ohio Parole Board of wanting to be released, in part, so that he could “witness in-person LeBron James’ pursuit of an NBA Championship for [Goudlock’s] hometown” of Cleveland, recently procured a digital billboard in Los Angeles,CA, to promote the CROW-TONE and William Nichols produced documentary “INVISIBLE CHESS:THE JASON GOUDLOCK STORY,” a film by New York film director Samuel H. Crow that delves into Goudlock’s longtime situation of injustice as an over-incarcerated prisoner who has been imprisoned since his 1993 arrest for aggravated robbery and assault.

Goudlock states on FreeJasonGoudlock.org that the gist of his 2014 letter to the Ohio Parole Board, which outlined several documented incidents of prisoner abuse committed against him by Ohio prison authorities, ranging from being assaulted by officers to having false criminal charges filed against him by a former warden who is now a member of the Ohio Parole Board, was overshadowed by his lighthearted comment about former Cleveland Cavalier LeBron James.

Goudlock further alleges that he was retaliated against by the Ohio Parole Board at his 2014 and 2019 hearings, due to speaking out about the incidents of injustice, which are documented in the INVISIBLE CHESS film.

Goudlock, who is the published author of the novel BROTHER OF THE STRUGGLE, is currently incarcerated at the Toledo Correctional Institution in Toledo, OH.

According to his “What’s Going On Blog” on FreeJasonGoudlock.org, Goudlock hopes that the Los Angeles billboard will attract the support of “influential social activist, such as Prof. Michelle Alexander, Colin Kaepernick, Jay Z, Kim Kardashian-West, Spike Lee, and LeBron James.

Video and photo images of the Los Angeles billboard can be viewed and
downloaded here:

“Invisible Chess” Billboard Video #1
“Invisible Chess” Billboard Video #2
“Invisible Chess” Billboard Video #3


The Old Law and The New: Jason Goudlock in Ohio

Originally aired January 5, 2020 on The Final Straw Radio Podcast.

The Final Straw Radio Podcast

First, we’ll hear from Jason Goudlock, a prisoner under the so-called “Old Law” in Ohio serving his 26th year of a 6-25 year sentence. Jason talks about the situation in Ohio between the “Old Law” and the “New Law”, for instance if he had been convicted of the same robbery and battery crimes three years later he might have served half of the time. Jason also speaks about the whims of the the Ohio Parole Board, some corroborated in public statements by former OPB member, Shirley Smith (linked in the show notes, and mentioning the situation of Marc Houc for instance).

Jason is the subject of a documentary, “Invisible Chess: The Jason Goudlock Story”, which can be found for free at FreeJasonGoudlock.org. Education packs for teachers can be found on the site for the film, InvisibleChess.com. The film will be shown on Wednesday, January 22nd, 2020 from 1:30-3pm alongside a discussion at Bard College led by the filmmaker, Samuel Crow, along with prison reformer Bill Nichols. It can be viewed it at the Bertelsmann Weis Cinema on the Bard College campus. You can find Jason’s website and blog up at his website. There is a gofundme run to raise funds for Jason’s legal defense and raising awareness of his case and those of other Old Law prisoners.

Jason also suggests FairTreatmentReformAndReentry.org to learn more about the struggle and check out recent legislation put forth in Ohio to affect the Old Law/New Law sentencing disparities (and in particular, Beverley A. Seymore, author of the Parole Reform Bill).

Near the end I ask Jason about recent hunger strikes by Mark Hinkston and David Easley, two other Ohio prisoners held for a bit at Toledo CI, who we’ve interviewed before on the show. The hunger strike was a protest against the use of solitary confinement specifically to torture prisoners suffering from mental health crises. More on that below. Jason also mentions the recent sexual abuse of prisoners at Toledo CI by mental health staff member Maggie Jedlinsky.

Finally, Jason shouts out the cases of the Lucasville Uprising. Check our show notes for links to our interviews with Hasan over the years and with Bomani Shakur, aka Keith Lamar, on his book Condemned and Greg Curry from the case. We also spoke with an attorney (Niki Schwartz) and another prisoner present on the 25th anniversary of the uprising.

Filming injustice in Ohio’s prisons: Jason Goudlock’s story

January 4, 2020
Originally published on sfbayview.com.

by Bill Nichols

Jason Goudlock, an Ohio inmate, expected to gain his freedom soon when he wrote to me in 2008. He had served 14 years, beginning when he was 18, and he wanted to learn how to make a documentary film about the challenges he expected to face when he was released from prison. Unfortunately, he didn’t need to worry about adjusting to life on the outside anytime soon.

Still imprisoned today, Goudlock received a five-year “flop” in August – a parole board decision to hold him at least until 2024. That’s the bad news.

Since 2008, Goudlock has worked with me on his writing. He’s published a novel, “Brother of the Struggle” (2014), as well as many essays that can be found at www.FreeJasonGoudlock.org.

And I found Samuel Crow, a documentary filmmaker interested in prison reform. Crow recently completed work on “Invisible Chess: The Jason Goudlock Story,” a documentary now available free at www.FreeJasonGoudlock.org. (For a trailer, teacher’s guide, press kit and more see www.InvisibleChess.com.) That’s the good news.

Instead of focusing on the challenges Goudlock will face when he is finally free, “Invisible Chess” explores the injustice Goudlock and many other Ohio inmates face now. A “truth in sentencing” law Ohio passed in 1996 created a growing class of “new-law” prisoners who know exactly when they will get out.

“Old-law” inmates like Goudlock, who went into prison before 1996, are made vulnerable by this discrepancy. They can be denied parole for fighting even when they are simply defending themselves from younger men who will never face a parole board. The truth is “old-law” prisoners keep the Ohio Parole Board in business. And Goudlock has been denied parole six times.

When he first contacted me, he’d just read an essay of mine, “Contemplating Torture,” in which I compared our country’s use of isolation in prisons with our use of torture in Iraq’s Abu Ghraib prison. At the time Goudlock was in the Ohio State Penitentiary (OSP), a high maximum-security prison (“supermax”) where most of the men are held in isolation.

At the age of 12, Goudlock was sent away from his home in Cleveland for almost three years to a private residential treatment center in Pennsylvania, where, he writes: “I spent about two-thirds of my time in isolation.” Later, in our correspondence, Goudlock seldom mentioned his isolation at OSP, but in the next few years he would complicate my understanding of its effects.

Goudlock, 44, has experienced isolation off and on for most of his life. In recent years he has reluctantly begun to embrace it despite advice like this from attorney Alice Lynd, probably the wisest of his many correspondents:

“People need to be interacting with other people in order to maintain their perspective. Reading is fine, but not to the exclusion of living interaction with other people. You could be so messed up by the time you were released from prison that it would be very hard to adjust.”

I’ve mentioned such dangers to Goudlock too, adding that the Parole Board uses his unwillingness to live in the general population as evidence that he’s not ready to be released. This is his answer:

“If I call attention to corruption in the criminal justice system, as I have, my time will be increased, as it has. I have come to believe the only way I can survive my time in prison is if I’m isolated from the general population. …

“Trying to study and write in a general population cell makes as much sense as a student trying to study for an exam at a heavy-metal concert instead of in a library. Solitary confinement is no library, but it is the lesser of two evils. It is a stressful, often depressing, environment, but I’d rather be stressed and depressed and able to function than unable to function at all.”

When prisons are run unjustly, Goudlock has convinced me, a prisoner who is strong enough psychologically can sometimes find a better life in the “hole” than in the general population. Ohio has such a prison system.

There is irony in my relationship with Jason Goudlock. He got in touch with me because of that essay I wrote calling our nation’s use of isolation torture. While he hasn’t convinced me otherwise, he’s shown me that an injustice like the old-law/new-law discrepancy can make isolation preferable to life in the general population for some prisoners.

Another irony: making “Invisible Chess: The Jason Goudlock Story,” Samuel Crow and I uncovered evidence that Ohio’s “truth in sentencing” legislation reduces the chance that “new-law” prisoners will participate in classes and other activities that encourage rehabilitation.

One more irony: a condemned man mentored Goudlock while he was in isolation at OSP. Siddique Abdullah Hasan, an African-American imam, was sentenced to death for his role in a 1993 prison uprising at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, Ohio, that led to the deaths of nine inmates and one guard. Hasan played a crucial role in negotiating an end to the uprising, and in a trial that followed the rebellion some inmates were given shortened sentences after testifying against him. (See Staughton Lynd, “The Untold Story of a Prison Uprising,” 2011.)

Goudlock talked with Hasan when he exercised in a day room outside Goudlock’s cell. He read some of Hasan’s essays. He began to write after months of little more than shouting protests in his cell about his unjust predicament.

He wrote “Brother of the Struggle” and his many essays. He can be found commenting on the American flag, hip-hop and “Invisible Chess” on www.prisonradio.org. He has become a crusader against Ohio’s unjust sentencing guidelines and is likely to continue even if it means another “flop” and more time behind bars.

Anyone wanting to urge the Ohio Legislature to resolve the unjust discrepancy in the state’s sentencing guidelines can contact Sen. Cecil Thomas, Senate Building, 1 Capitol Square, 2nd Floor, Columbus, OH 43215, 614-466-5980, and Gov. Mike DeWine, Riffe Center, 30th Floor, 77 South High St., Columbus, OH 43215, 614-644-4357.

Bill Nichols, a retired English professor, writes columns for the Valley News in New Hampshire. He can be reached at nichols@denison.ed

Imprisoned LeBron Fan Uses Billboards In Fight For Freedom

***************** FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE *******************

On November 1, 2019, the freedom campaign of Ohio prisoner Jason Goudlock, 44, who is the subject of the feature-length documentary INVISIBLE CHESS: The Jason Goudlock Story, erected a digital billboard in Ohio and Atlanta, GA, calling for his release.

Goudlock, a native of Cleveland, OH, who made international headlines in 2014 for a comment he made to the Ohio Parole Board about LeBron James, is serving an indeterminate sentence.

***************** FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE *******************

Letter to The Walt Disney Company

I wrote to The Walt Disney Company about my documentary, Invisible Chess: The Jason Goudlock Story, because I thought it would appeal to ABC News and ESPN, both owned by Disney. But, I guess, “doing the right thing” only matters to filmmakers like Spike Lee.

This was their response:

Dear Mr. Goudlock:

This will acknowledge, with thanks, your letter to The Walt Disney Company seeking out out interest in a documentary about the Ohio criminal justice system and your life story. Your correspondence was forwarded to the Disney Legal Department as it is our responsibility to respond to such submissions and inquiries on behalf of the Disney organization.

Please know that we sympathize with the circumstances of your position and we appreciate your interest in writing to us. As to the kind offer of your story and offer, I must explain that our company’s long-established policy does not allow us to accept for review or consideration any ideas, suggestions or creative materials not specifically solicited by us or our subsidiaries. It is our intention to avoid misunderstandings when projects are created internally which might be similar to submissions made to us from outside the company.

We recognize that this policy is sometimes a disappointing one as when someone like yourself, a creative individual, with all the best intentions, would simply like us to consider your own creative idea and offer. Experience has taught us, though, that if we abandon our policy for one person, we will have to make exceptions for others and soon we will have no policy at all. Therefore, as required, I must return your letter and accompanying documents, unexamined, and without retaining any copies. We hope you will understand that this is not meant to be a reflection on the merit of your offer and idea. Rather, this is how we are required to respond to all unsolicited submissions.

Although our reply must necessarily be one other than what you might have hoped for, we do appreciate your interest in writing to us.

Very truly yours,

The Legal Department

The Walt Disney Company

Download a copy of the letter from The Walt Disney Company here:

Jason’s Claim of Innocence Letter to Subway

Dear Subway,

My name is Jason Goudlock and I’m a 43-year-old Ohio prisoner who has been imprisoned since 1993, for committing several offenses of robbery and felonious assault. I’m writing this letter to you, however, in regards to my effort to prove my innocence in one of the robberies, which involved one of your Subway franchises in Cleveland, Ohio.

According to police records of Cleveland’s Fourth District Police Department, on March 9, 1993, a Subway eatery on Broadway Road was allegedly robbed by me (and a second suspect). The records also state that the Subway’s video surveillance system recorded footage of me robbing the sandwich shop. As I’ve mentioned above, however, I did not rob your establishment, and I am seeking to clear my name.

With this being said, in the interest of undoing an egregious case of injustice (Case No. CR299248, Cuyahoga County), I humbly ask that you, please, please assist me with obtaining the video surveillance tape of the 1993 Subway robbery. I have never seen the footage of the video, that is, because I was ineffectively represented by court appointed attorneys who manipulated me into forfeiting my right to go to trial. I know that the video, however, will exonerate me of any wrongdoing, that is, because I did not commit the robbery!

If you will help me to obtain the sought video, I simply ask that you make it available to the media and general public. The vindicating footage will speak for itself and will surely lead to me being freed from my nightmarish situation of injustice.

Although I did commit some of the robberies that I was convicted of committing in 1993, I shouldn’t have to have my entire life destroyed because of mistakes that I made as a juvenile, and because of a broken criminal justice system. With this being said, if you can find it in your heart to be an advocate of me being afforded the justice that I’ve been denied, I assure you that your gesture will exponentially benefit not just me, but it will, also, benefit countless of other at-risk young men and women. For, I intend to spend the rest of my life using my restored freedom towards preventing at-risk youth from traveling down the perilous road that I once traveled down.

In closing, I just want to say thank you for your time, and that I hope you will seriously consider helping me with proving my claim of innocence. At a time when the U.S. is greatly divided by various social inequalities and politics, I think that answering my plea to you for assistance would be a good opportunity to help move the country in a positive direction.


Jason Goudlock

Postscript: How about a job if I’m released? I’d love to be an example of redemption as a Subway employee

[1] A feature length film documentary, Invisible Chess: The Jason Goudlock Story, was recently released about my overall situation of injustice as an over-incarcerated Ohio “Old-law” prisoner. In 2014, after my protestations about my situation of injustice were publicized by way of a lighthearted comment that I made about LeBron James, I was given an unjust 60-month sentence continuation.

Invisible Chess World Premier – Press Release



Invisible Chess: The Jason Goudlock Story, a documentary by director Samuel Crow, will be premiering at the Greater Cleveland Urban Film Festival on September 26th and 27th.

Invisible Chess, a feature-length documentary, tells how an unjust Ohio law shapes the lives of Jason Goudlock, 4,000 other “old-law” prisoners, and 45,000 “new-law” prisoners. The story begins with Goudlock’s disrupted life in Cleveland, which led him to prison at the age of eighteen. Taken under the wing of older death row convicts, Jason became an activist and writer. But the struggles of being an old-law con have led him to spend years in solitary confinement, often voluntarily. Current and former prisoners and officials help explore the ramifications of Goudlock’s story, which is punctuated by six of his raps, performed in the film.

The Greater Cleveland Urban Film Festival, which celebrates the African cultural diaspora, will be showing Invisible Chess at 8:20 p.m. on Wednesday, September 26th and at 2:30 p.m. on Thursday, the 27th at the Shaker Square Cinema. Crow will be present at both screenings to answer questions, and interviews can be arranged by contacting info@invisiblechess.com.

PDF for printing.

Hazardous Infirmary

Imagine being taken to a prison infirmary under the pretense that you’re about to receive some type of medical care, only to be met and confronted by a small band of cowardly and hostile prison officers who have malice in their heart and intentions of causing bodily harm to you. Now, add to this situation the element of being defenseless due to being bound behind your back in handcuffs, and shackled in leg manacles. This scenario is a reality that occurs often for many of the prisoners where I’m incarcerated at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility (SOCF) in Lucasville, Ohio, and it’s widely known amongst the captives (prisoners) and captors (prison administration) of SOCF.

Prisoners in SOCF are escorted to the infirmary, taken into an examination room — where there’s no surveillance — and all medical staff are ordered out. The prisoner is then struck about the head, face, and torso by fists, knees, and feet from every direction, until he’s on the floor not moving and/or rendered unconscious. After the beating, the prisoner is then threatened with more bodily harm to occur in the future, for reasons such as filing grievances about being assaulted by prison officers, complaining about inhumane living conditions, et cetera.

I personally know of incidents of violence that have been committed against prisoners in SOCF’s infirmary by officers. One particular incident transpired as follows:

On May 10, 2017, early afternoon, Brother Al “Beno” George (#594-113) was being escorted to Unit D-1 (the upper infirmary) because he’d missed more than nine (9) meals, which automatically and officially designated George as being on a “hunger strike,” which he saw as a means to peacefully protest against being harassed and assaulted by prison officials, and being unjustly placed in excessive isolation.

Once George entered the elevator to ascend to the medical unit (D-1) where “hunger-strikers” are to be monitored, he was attacked by Sgt. Tacket, Stg. Dillow, C.O. Lewis, and two other unidentified officers.

Brother George suffered injuries on the left side of his neck and shoulder, his back, and right knee. These injuries were documented by medical staff, and the Ohio State Highway Patrol (i.e. Trooper Lewis Fielding), who, by chance, happened to be in the vicinity where injured prisoner George was being housed shortly after the incident took place, which, ultimately, afforded George an opportunity to report the assault. In turn, the state highway patrolman documented and photographed George’s injuries.

The prison officers that assaulted Brother George didn’t even bother to document any type of “use of force” report about the incident, or even attempt to cover up the incident. This bold and brazen behavior is consistent with the corruption of SOCF! They are so “relaxed and comfortable” with violations of administrative regulations, policies, and procedures, and breaking the law in accordance with the Ohio Revised Code, because they are NEVER HELD ACCOUNTABLE FOR ANY OF THEIR INAPPROPRIATE AND UNLAWFUL BEHAVIOR TOWARD PRISONERS!

The assailants who assaulted Brother George, unfortunately, succeeded in intimidating him to abandon his hunger strike. Despite the knowledge that the Ohio State Highway Patrol has documented about George’s assault, George was placed in a cellblock housing area that’s under the direct supervision of two of the assailants that assaulted Brother George, that is, Sgt. Tacket and Sgt. Dillow!

Until then, a trip to the SOCF prison infirmary — a location that isn’t adequately equipped with security cameras — will remain potentially, extremely HAZARDOUS!

From inside HELL-HOLE, a true brother against oppression, and your comrade in the STRUGGLE,

Brother Mark Hinkston

Mark Hinkston #707-808
P.O. Box 45699
Lucasville, Ohio 45699-0001

You can view a TV interview of Mark Hinkston (that was featured on the acclaimed TV show series “Lock-Up”) on MSNBC.

View the MSNBC LockUp Facebook post from 2015.